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The Kidney Failure Risk Equation

This model gives the 2 and 5 year risk of kidney failure in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease stage 3 to 5 (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m²).

Tangri N, Grams ME, Levey AS, Coresh J, Appel LJ, Astor BC et al. Multinational Assessment of Accuracy of Equations for Predicting Risk of Kidney Failure. A Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2016;315(2):164-174


Timing of Clinical Outcomes in CKD with Severely Decreased GFR

This model gives the risk of various clinical outcomes and their timing in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage G4 (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73m²).

Grams ME, Sang Y, Ballew SH, Carrero JJ, Djurdjev O, Heerspink HJL et al. Predicting timing of clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease and severely decreased glomerular filtration rate. Kidney Int 2018; 93:1442-1451


ESRD Risk Tool for Kidney Donor Candidates

This model is intended for low-risk adults considering living kidney donation in the United States. It provides an estimate of 15-year and lifetime incidence of end-stage renal disease.

Grams ME, Sang Y, Levey AS, Matsushita K, Ballew S, Chang AR et al. Kidney-Failure Risk Projection for the Living Kidney-Donor Candidate. N Engl J Med 2016; 374:411-421

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Risk of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD)

This model estimates the prevalence and lifetime risk of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) using traditional atherosclerotic risk factors.

Matsushita K, Sang Y, Ning H, Ballew S, Chow EK, Grams et al. Lifetime risk of lower extremity peripheral artery disease defined by ankle-brachial index in the US. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Sep 17;8(18)

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Risk of Incident Chronic Kidney Disease

This model estimates the probability of developing reduced kidney function of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m²

Nelson RG, Grams ME, Ballew SH, Sang Y, Azizi F, Chadban SJ, et al. Development of Risk Prediction Equations for Incident Chronic Kidney Disease. JAMA 2019 322(21):2104-2114

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Urine Protein-Creatinine Conversion

This calculator converts available urine dipstick or urine protein-creatinine measures to albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) for use in CKD risk equations

Sumida K, Nadkarni GN, Grams ME, Sang Y, Ballew SH, Coresh J, et al. Conversion of Urine Protein–Creatinine Ratio or Urine Dipstick Protein to Urine Albumin–Creatinine Ratio for Use in Chronic Kidney Disease Screening and Prognosis. Ann Intern Med 2020 173(6):426-435.

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CVD risk prediction incorporating CKD markers

These calculators incorporate measures of kidney disease to enhance the prediction for Cardiovascular Risk determined by the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) and SCORE

Matsushita K, Jassal SK, Sang Y, Ballew SH, Grams ME, Surapaneni A, et al. Incorporating kidney disease measures to improve cardiovascular risk prediction. EClinicalMedicine 2020

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